This report presents a framework for cross-cultural competence in Army leaders, reviews empirical research on predictors of intercultural effectiveness, and describes existing measures of cross-cultural competence and related constructs.
This report discusses cross-cultural competence (3C) training, development, and assessment in the U.S. Army.
Increasingly, the United States Army operates in multinational, and therefore, multicultural, environments. Teamwork within such settings requires the ability to see events as members of other cultures see them. The goal of the research was to define a set of multicultural perspective taking skills that will enable Army leaders to function effectively in multinational alliances.
This report discusses the need for an improved SOF language training and education program consisting of improved initial language and culture training, advanced regional studies and in-country immersion.
The contemporary operational environment is often characterized by ambiguous, multi-cultural contexts, where Army Soldiers must rapidly adapt without extensive prior knowledge of a region or its people. Ongoing training development efforts are addressing the need for general cross-cultural competence, but this broad competence must be clearly defined and assessed in order to determine if Soldiers are being adequately prepared.
The author examines the following limitations of research on individualism and collectivism: It treats nations as cultures and culture as a continuous quantitative variable; conflates all kinds of social relations and distinct types of autonomy; ignores contextual specificity in norms and values; measures culture as the personal preferences and behavior reports of individuals; rarely establishes the external validity of the measures used; assumes cultural invariance in the meaning of self-reports and anchoring and interpretation of scales; and reduces culture to explicit, abstract verbal knowledge.
This Culture, Regional Expertise and Language (CREL) focused issue of the Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin contains contributions from CREL stakeholders who are engaged in today’s “heavylifting” and setting the conditions for a globally responsive and regionally engaged Army.
This document was produced through an ad hoc collaboration among scientists from three Military Services (U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Marine Corps) to summarize and highlight 3C research focused on, or relevant to, the military.
There is emerging agreement within the military services that culture is an important factor in irregular warfare and stability, support, transition, and reconstruction operations. Sociocultural factors affect every level of engagement in irregular warfare, from the interpersonal interactions while negotiating with local leaders, military advisers training their counterparts, to group and societal engagements during strategic communication and influence operations.