This paper addresses the following questions: is (external) merge, the binary operation that combines two elements into a constituent in every variant of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky, 1993, 1995 and related works), an unconstrained operation? If so, what avoid generating ill-formed structures?
Two studies provided direct support for a recently proposed dialect theory of communicating emotion, positing that expressive displays show cultural variations similar to linguistic dialects, thereby decreasing accurate recognition by out-group members.
The author examines the following limitations of research on individualism and collectivism: It treats nations as cultures and culture as a continuous quantitative variable; conflates all kinds of social relations and distinct types of autonomy; ignores contextual specificity in norms and values; measures culture as the personal preferences and behavior reports of individuals; rarely establishes the external validity of the measures used; assumes cultural invariance in the meaning of self-reports and anchoring and interpretation of scales; and reduces culture to explicit, abstract verbal knowledge.
The title of this issue is Global Solutions. The articles featured inside in one way or another consider solutions to ongoing global problems or provide knowledge and/or skills to those organizations and their personnel as they go about supporting missions and operations to help resolve conflict and other crises and disasters.
In this initial special topics issue, Robert Greene Sands and Pieter DeVisser suggest, in their detailed look at the DoD’s language, regional expertise and culture (LREC) program, that there lacks any kind of sufficient assessment mechanism to provide organizations critical understanding of their LREC
capability, while failing to also provide the individual learner with a measure of performance useful to professional career development.